last review  02-01-2017

text under revision


FABRICATION TECHNIQUES OF DRACHM

MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES AND EXECUTION OF DRACHMS

 

 

PECULIAR AND PARTICULAR IS THE STRUCTURE TECHNIQUE OF THE 'PADANIA' DRACHMS OF CENOMANI AND SALLUVII (VERY SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER) AND INSUBRES.


You can say that the INSUBRI adopted a double technique, either a drop or lenticular and the shearing system to correct the weight. This second technique was used especially for the drachm of heavy type (II-III Century b.C.).


This type of technique is completly different from that used for all other Drachm of 'Padania' Celtic Polpulation, like the Pedemontani, the Boii, the Veneti, the Insubri (Leponzi),  the Liguri?the Veragri and the Libui.


Being the 'Padania' Drachm originally imitations, that is a false of epoch, of the official drachma of Massalia, with a lenticular shape, not differed absolutly from the technique for executing of the official silver pieces.


Obviously these 'Padania' drachms were 'false', initially they had a low alloy with a title 600-700 thousandths of pure metal against the drachm of Massalia  that had a title of 900-920 thousandths maximum.
 

Metallurgical tests with system of cupellation on a group of  'Padania' drachm result that the composition of the league expressed in thausandths is :

669% Silver
228%
geminal Copper
80% Pool
22 % Lead
Antimony absent - or the percentage to get to 1000/
thausandths, in this case more or less 0.90 to 1%

NOTE: With cupellation do not resut
other metals and residues such as antimony (Stibium), since it is a semimetal that look like a metal, but does not have the physical-chemical behaviour.

Lead alloyed with antimony significantly increases the hardness and mechanical strength.

 


II-I Century b.C.


LOWERING THE TITLE OF SILVER


Because of war events with consequent economic crisis, the 'Padania' Drachms undergo a significant reduction of weight, and lowering of intrinsic precious metal (silver).

The coin was emitted from a public power for a 'league', if I can call, made of different people united only cetral power. 

Other people not to 'league' members, externally bordering and not, beat their money with an additional debasement of noble metals (silver), after weight lowering, that do not exceed the value of 02-03 tenth of a gram, to get the highest return.

In this way as for the official Massalia Drachm, the falsification of the same 'Padania' Drachm by the people not to the 'league' members, further decreasing pure silver.


Towards the end of the second century behind the first, the Drachm type Rikoy gradually undergo a rapid depreciation of the precious metal to reach permanently title 270-300/thousandths.

 

 

DRACHM

SUBERATE

 

 

ROMAN COINS OF THE ISSUES AFFECTING SUBER IMMEDIATELY THE DRACHM PADANE RADICAL CHANGE IN TIMES FASTER THE SYSTEM OF MANUFACTURING.

 

 

And 'TRUSTED THAT THE PERIOD IN WHICH MORE' WAS INTENSE ALTERATION MONETARY ROMAN COINS HAS ENTERED INTO SUBER Po Valley.

  

SURELY GO FOR A SHORT TIME WITH THE PEOPLE PADANE YEAR ACQUIRED THIS TYPE OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, PROCESS THAT REQUIRES A SUBSTANTIAL MONETARY EXPERIENCE.

GREAT DIFFICULTY 'IS TO COVER THE METAL Tondello (copper or iron), with silver foil, with a thickness LOW BUT HAD TO RESIST for striking.

 

 

 

CENOMANI

 

 

 

 

 

 

DRACHM N° 1448 

 

 

 

 

SIZE  1-1

 

MAXIMUN DIAMETER IN MILLIMETER : 16,300

 

 

 

FOTO 1

 

 

 

VENEER SIDE
  

  

USUALLY THE DRACHM OF CENOMANI OF LIGHT IS THE TYPE THAT WERE MADE WITH HEAVY TYPE OF THIS TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, (shearing).

  

CUT TO PIECES BY A SHORT AND NARROW BAR OF SILVER OBTAINED FOR MERGER OF CAST METAL DIRECTLY IN A STRIP MATTEROZZA, (by the Inca Semi-round) YOU MUST USE A CHISEL.

  

COINS WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF PRESERVATION at their ends are very sharp. '

 

 

 

FOTO 2

 

VENEER SIDE

 

 

 

PHOTO 2

 

PRETTY REGULAR CONVEX SIDE OF FORM DUE BY PRESSURE THROUGH TYPING ON METAL of the issue

 

 

 

DRACHM N° 1433

 

 

SIZE  1-1

 

MAXIMUN DIAMETER IN MILLIMETER : 15,010

 


 

The DRACHM N° 1433 - It 'WAS NOT CUT WITH CHISEL AND WITH HELP OF SHEARS. VARIOUS ITEMS AS falsely asserted.

THE SHEAR (SHEAR), FOR AS LITTLE PIECES OF METAL AND THICK CUT WHICH IS A FAIL MECHANICALLY-ROUGHING - THE SURPLUS OF METAL
  

THIS WAS A VERY POPULAR TECHNIQUE FOR THE REASON THAT OTHERWISE, IT WOULD HAVE subsidiary continue BLADE CHISEL Ruins, therefore, become more 'BREAK EASY PIECES OF SILVER WITH BARE HANDS OR WITH THE HELP OF HOW APPROPRIATE TOOLS, PLIERS Or Tenaglia.

 

 

SIDE A

 

 

1433 -CENOMANI LATO A

 

IN THIS PHOTO (SIDE-A-), one notes that the CHISEL VENEER OF EQUITY HAS NOT THE SILVER PIECE BUT THE PART ABOUT 20-30% SO THE PIECE AND 'STATE AFTER BEING BROKEN FOR THE OTHER END DISCONNECTED' THE STRIP.

 

 

 

SIDE C - B

 

 

1433 -CENOMANI LATO C - B

IN THIS PICTURE ON (CB), YOU CAN SEE CLEARLY THAT ARE TWO POINTS OF CUT: C - B.

  THE THIRD POINT OF CUT (C) 'The ADJUSTMENT OF THE SAME WEIGHT EXCEED THAT SURELY.

 

 

DRACHM N° 1337 

 

 

 

SIDE 1-1

 

MAXIMUN DIAMETER IN MILLIMETER : 16,780

 

 

 

SECTION   AB-C

 

 

SECTION   A-B

 

1337

 

SECTION   C

 

1337

 

The DRACHM N° 1337 HIGHLIGHTS SOME VERY GOOD PART Trance (A) AND THE Dividing (B), SO 'HOW THE DRACHM  N° 1433 WITHOUT FURTHER CORRECTION OF WEIGHT WITH SHEARING.

ON THE SIDE (C) IS KNOWN TO THE END OF THE BAR OF CIRCULAR FORM, OBTAINED BY MERGER WITH THE CLASSIC METAL FOR STRONG PRESSURE jaggedness of the issue.

 

 

 

VENETI

 

 

 

 

DRACHM  N° 641

 

 

 

 

EMIDRACHM  N° 1449

 

 

 

Until now, I think the DRACHM -EMIDRACHS of the VENETI were all performed with the technique CASTING CALL FOR A DROP FORM THE BORDER WITH ROUND OR OVAL OUTDOOR round in shape.

  

EVEN THOUGH THE DRACHM  VENETI OF A PERCENTAGE OF MUCH LOWER ARE MADE A MACHINE.

  

IN THIS PICTURE AND 'WELL VISIBLE PERFORMANCE OF Tondello.

 

 

 

PEDEMONTANI

 

 

 

 

SIDE 1-1

 


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last review 14/11/2012