last review  02-01-2017

last review 12/12/2015




ATTENTION
 
THE USE OF ANY PART OF THIS SITE IS FORBIDDEN, YOU HAVE TO ASK THE PERMISSION TO THE OWNER OF THE WEB SITE. 


INSUBRES

 

(Insŭbres  - Ινσοβροι  - Ινσουβροι )


   

LOMBARD-PIEDMONTESE VALLEY


 

 

CENTURY BC V
 
The population of the Celtic Insubri is a native of Gaul, belonging to the branch of the Aedui.
This population factor militia is certainly powerful and well-trained, is a good territory in northern Italy at the time of migration of the various Celtic tribes, towards the middle of the century. V in. C.about.
The city's main territory was Mediolanum, but the boundaries are not very reliable.
Their territory included Angera, Brebbia, Monza, Vimercate.
The version of Ptolemy indicates that Salassi and the Libyans were bordering the Insubres.
At the beginning of the Second Punic War the Insubres are at war with Taurini, therefore, we think that they had extended their supremacy over the Celtic tribes in their closest, as Laevii and Anares.
Are considered Insubri the territories of Como, Pavia, Novara, Lodi and Bergamo old.
The table Peutingeriana the Insubres stretch up to Eporedia.
 
YEAR 232-225 BC
 
Whereas some questionable news that relate to their migration and to their allocation, the Insubres there are described as population in great stir in the 232 to. C., together with the other lineages cisalpine, when describing C. Flaminio put forward his famous proposal for the distribution viritana ager gallicus.
The link between this movement and this proposal is not clear, and the fact is that they moved only in 225 a. C., after which an alloy was formed between them and the Boii, the Lingones and probably also the Taurini.
 
The Insubri strengthened by numerous military ranks Gesati calls, from the same homeland, they managed to win some ottennere initially, only to be defeated in the battle of Telamon.
The Roman army in this battle loses the consul C. Regulus, conquering Gaul.
Even the mighty people of the Boii, after about a year had to surrender.
 
YEAR 223-222 BC
 
In the year 223 BC the consuls C. Flaminio and P. Furio invaded part of Transpadana. Faced with gl'Insubri by the river Oglio managed to defeat them.
Called Flaminio and P.Furio by the Senate in Rome, was celebrated their triumph a few days before the Ides of March in the year 222 BC.
The war was ended by the consuls Cn. Cornelius Scipio and M.Claudius Marcellus, the latter defeated the barbarians in Clastidio, killing the ruler Virdumaro.
Claudio Marcello, taking Acerre, one 'Mediolanum beating it against his army.
The Insubri had to resign themselves to the status of allies, giving the whole Cremona where it was founded.
In the Second Punic War, the Insubres, enemies of Taurini favored Hannibal, providing large military troops, remained loyal throughout the duration of the war.
 
YEAR 198-49 A.C
 
In the year 198 a. C. was captured Piacenza, which led to a massive intervention of the Romans and consequently to a lasting peace in the year 194 BC
By virtue of the lex Pompeia Strabonis the year 89 BC, Mediolanum was the Roman law, and in the year 49 BC, the Roman citizenship.
 
The way of life in the villages disappeared, so 'as the race of Insubri, inglobandosi radically ordinary citizens, somehow keeping the original name.
 
 
SOURCES REFERENCES
 
 

G. De Sanctis, History of the Romans, I, Turin 1907, p. 161 et seq., III, 1917, Part 1, p. 304 et seq., Part 2, p. 91 and n541, IV, 1923, p.410 et seq.
M. Baratta, Clastidium, Pavia 1932. T. Mommsen in Corp. Inscr.lat., I, p. 47, V, p. 715.
Ptolemy (III, 1, 30 and 32), R. Kiepert, Frames orbis ancients, leaf XXIII, text p. 5.
C. F. Czoernig, Völker Die alten Oberitaliens, Vienna 1885.
H. Nissen, Italische Landeskunde, I, Berlin 1883, p. 477, II, including 1902, p. 179.

 


 

IMPORTANT  INTRODUCTION. 

 

 

ALL THE DRACHMS  AND EMIDRACHMS ON THIS WEBSITE ARE THE BEST EXAMPLES THAT  I COULD FOUND.

THE MOST OF THESE ARE IN GOOD CONDITION.

OWNERSHIP OF MOST OF THE DRACHM  IS OF MUSEUMS, SOME ARE PUBLISCHED IN THE AUCTIONS AND ONLY A FEW OF THEM BELONGS TO PRIVATE.

 

IN ORDER TO EXCLUDE ANY DOUBT RELATING TO DRACMS AND EMIDRACHMS OF PADANIA CELTIC (NORTH ITALY), I HAVE DECIDED TO PUT ALSO DRACHMS OF LOW PRESERVATION WITH SOME PROBLEMS DUE TO IMPORTANT  FACTORS  AS  CORROSION,  OXIDATION,   EXFOLIATION ETC., CAUSED BY THE TIME AND IN PARTICULAR WAY  BY THE VARIOUS TYPES OF LAND WITH FEATURES OF STRONG  OR LOW ACIDITY, CAUSED ALSO FROM FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS.

I HAVE DECIDED TO ADD THESE LOW PRESERVATION DRACMS BECAUSE NORMALLY WHEN DRACHMS OF VERY HIGH PRESERVATION ARE SEEN IT’S EASY TO GIVE INCORRECT ASCRIPTION WITHOUT ANY FONDATION.

 

IDENTICAL DRACMS OF THE SAME COINAGE PRESETED IN THIS WEBSITE OR THAT THERE WILL BE INSERTED THEY WILL BE NO MORE THEN  TWO COPIES.

ALTHOUGH IDENTICAL (FROM THE SAME COINAGE), THE TWO COPIES WILL BE DESCRIBED AS FOLLOWING:

 

THE FIRST DRACM WITH THE FEATURE OF HIGHT PRESERVATION:

 

FROM BB: FINE+ TO SPL: EXTREMELY FINE.

 

THE SECOND WITH THE FEATURE OF LOW PRESERVATION:

 

FROM M: POOR FINE TO qB: ALMOST  FINE. TO B: FINE.

 

THE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OF THE DRACM WILL BE:

 

No. 889 A IDENTICAL TO No. 889

 

EXAMPLE:

 

SEE THE DRACM No. 889 IN THE CENOMANI SECTION.




 

 

DRACHM N° 1147

 

 

 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM - HEAVY TYPE

II-III cent. b.C.

SILVER

3.634 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 4 (from 1 to 4)

17.722 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1147



 

 

DRACHM N° 191

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM - HEAVY TYPE

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

3.253 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 1 (from 1 to 4)

17.183 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

191





Reference DRACMA N ° 191


 

DRACMA THIS BELONGS TO THE CLASS OF VERY RARE.

 

 

NOT PUBLISHED ON BOOKS-SPECIALIZED CATALOGUES.

NOT PUBLISHED ON BOOKS CATALOGUES-MUSEUM.

 

SALE NUMISMATIC AUCTIONS:  NO



 

 

DRACHM N° 1542

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM 

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2,4500 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 2 (from 1 to 4)

17.183 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1542 SG



 

 

DRACHM N° 494

 


  

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2.021 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 1 (from 1 to 4)

14.951 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

494




 

DRACHM N° 1566

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2,390 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 3-4 (from 1 to 4)

13,8400 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1566




 

DRACHM N° 1568

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

1,9600 g

VERY FINE grade 4 (from 1 to 4)

15,8900 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1568



 

 

DRACHM N° 492

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2.251 g

VERY FINE grade 3 (from 1 to 4)

18.910 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

492



 

 

DRACHM N° 1348

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2.220 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 2 (from 1 to 4)

12.800 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1348



 

 

DRACHM N° 225

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2.632 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 3-4 (from 1 to 4)

15.200 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

225



 

 

DRACHM N° 487

 


 

TYPE

YEAR

METAL

WEIGHT

CONSERVATION

DIAMETER

Degree of Rarity

 

PROPERTY

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2.460 g

EXTREMELY FINE grade 2 (from 1 to 4)

15.800 mm

Common - Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

487




 

DRACHM N° 1576

 


 

Type

Year

Metal

Weight

Conservation

Diameter

Degree of Rarity

 

Property

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

before of II cent. b.C.

SILVER

2,3490 g

FINE grade 2 (from 1 to 4)

16,2300 mm

Common-  Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1576



 

 

DRACHM N° 1436

 


 

Type

Year

Metal

Weight

Conservation

Diameter

Degree of Rarity

 

Property

Identification N°

 

DRACHM

before of II cent. b.C.

SILVER

3.103 g

VERY FINE grade 4 (from 1 to 4)

15.602 mm

Common-  Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

1436



 

 

DRACHM N° 340

 


 

Type

Year

Metal

Weight

Conservation

Diameter

Degree of Rarity

 

Property

Identification N°

 

DRACHM 

second of II cent. b.C.

COPPER-SILVER (SUBERATE)

1.876 g

FINE + grade 4 (from 1 to 4)

14.441 mm

Common-  Not Common - R.1 - R.2 - R.3 - R.4 - unique

-----

340





Reference DRACMA N ° 340


 

DRACMA THIS BELONGS TO THE CLASS OF VERY RARE.

 

 

NOT PUBLISHED ON BOOKS-SPECIALIZED CATALOGUES.

NOT PUBLISHED ON BOOKS CATALOGUES-MUSEUM.

 

SALE NUMISMATIC AUCTIONS:  NO





EVALUATION

 

 

-YEAR 2016-



 

 

To the initial evaluation must be add the increase, expressed as a percentage, in accordance with the degree of rarity.

 

 

FINE

 

1° *00.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

2° *00.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

3° *50.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

4° *70.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

 

FINE +

 

1°   *90.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

2° *100.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

3° *150.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

4° *250.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

 

VERY FINE 

 

1° *300.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

2° *450.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

3° *600.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

4° *800.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

 

EXTREMELY FINE

 

1° *1,000.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

2° *1,200.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

3° *1,500.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

4° *2,000.00 - R 1 + 10% R 2 + 15% R 3 + 50% R 4 + 100%

 

NB:

 

THE HEAVY TYPE DRACHMAS HAVE A HIGHER EVALUATION UP TO 300%.

 

 

 

Select the Celtic population of interest to open the section


last review 12/12/2015